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Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) entails using a narrow gauge (25-22G) needle to collect a sample of a lesion for microscopic examination. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of tissue but does not preserve its histological architecture.

What is FNAC?

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used to take cells from palpable nodules in organs or tissues. The purpose of this examination is to categorise the type of lesion responsible for its occurrence.

How is FNAC performed?

Cells are harvested by aspiration, using a thin needle attached to a syringe and placed in a special handle, making it easier to manoeuvre.

FNAC is performed by an anatomical pathologist assisted by an anatomical pathology technician. It is ideally done with the patient lying down and does not require an anaesthetic. In some cases, a topical anesthetic spray may be used. The test is very straightforward. Most patients experience only mild discomfort, comparable to an injection, during the procedure.

How long does an FNAC take?

An FNAC takes only a few minutes to carry out. A single puncture is usually enough to harvest sufficient material for analysis, but in some cases, two or more punctures may be necessary. A brief assessment of the sample is carried out during the procedure, but in some cases, more cells may need to be obtained in order to reach a diagnostic conclusion.

Is any preparation necessary?

No preparation is necessary to carry out an FNAC. It should not be done on an empty stomach. After the examination, patients may resume their normal activities.

Is there a device that can do fine needle aspirates cytology preparation?

Basic cancer diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, X-ray, cytology, and biopsy capability should be available at the secondary care level, and also available at the primary care level where resources permit, to successfully implement cancer early diagnosis programs

The best product from PT ISOTEKINDO INTERTAMA related to an early cancer diagnosis is CY-PREP ™ CY-100 Processor which is equipped with several components to perform screening including:

  1. Liquid media to contain, transport, and preserve test samples using CY-PREP™ Pap Test Preservation Solution


    • Protect the sample, and hold it for 3 weeks at room temperature (15-30 °C). Samples are safe from dryness & damage
    • Minimizes the risk of important samples being left in the sampling device
    • Collect all cervical samples so that all sample cells can be examined
    • Provide enough test samples so that patients do not need to re-samples for follow-up tests
  1. Separating the inspection target material from lenders and dirt using a dual filter.


    • Make a thin layer of preparation
    • Cells become clearer when examined because the cell staining process becomes more perfect and adheres better

     3. Glass slide for sample attachment using IHC link glass slide


    • There is an area for writing Patient ID, thus ensuring the accuracy of patient data
    • Better reading quality because the IHC link glass slide is positively charged so that cells stick better



  1. Brown LA, Coghill SB. Cost-effectiveness of a fine needle aspiration clinic. Cytopathology 1992;3: 275-80
  2. Britton PD. Fine needle aspiration or core biopsy. Breast 1999;8: 1-4
  3. Hospital Da Luz (2019). Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)
  4. Insert Pack CY-Prep 100 Processor


Liquid Based Cytology
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