image article
27 February 2019
TYPHOID FEVER

Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) is one of gram negative bacteria that is a pathogenic germ that causes typhoid fever, which is a systemic infectious disease with a long-lasting fever description, the presence of bacteremia accompanied by inflammation that can damage the intestines and organs of the liver. Typhoid fever is an infectious disease spread throughout the world, and is still the largest health problem in developing and tropical countries such as Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America (Yatnita, 2011).

The spread of this disease occurs throughout the year and does not depend on the climate, this is due to the supply of clean water, environmental sanitation and poor individual hygiene, therefore the prevention of typhoid fever includes basic sanitation and personal hygiene, which includes clean water treatment, water distribution and waste control, provision of hand washing facilities, construction and use of toilets, boiling water for drinking purposes and supervision of food providers (Yatnita, 2011).

The disease occurs when germs penetrate the intestinal epithelial mucosa, multiply in the propina lamina then enter the mesenterium lymph nodes. After it enters the blood circulation so that the first bacteremia occurs asimomatis, then germs enter the organs, especially hepar and bone marrow followed by the release of germs and endotoxins into the blood circulation causing the second bacteremia. Germs in the hepar will re-enter the small intestine, resulting in an infection as before and some germs are removed with the stool (Yatnita, 2011).

Typhoid fever causes the sufferer to experience the following symptoms: diarrhea / constipation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, reduced appetite, headache, and weakness. This disease can be transmitted from one sufferer to another through food or drink contaminated with this bacteria. Diagnosis can be done through interviews with sufferers, physical examinations, and blood tests (Yatnita, 2011).

One of the usual blood tests is to do a widal test. Widal test is a serological test procedure to detect salmonella enterica bacteria that cause Thipoid disease. This test will show salmonella antibody reactions to O-somatic and H-flagellar antigens in the blood (Wikipedia, 2017).

Remel™ Stained Salmonella O and H Suspensions (Widal Test) is used to qualitatively detect Salmonella antibodies in serums for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes, especially for examination of enteric and pyrectal infections. This suspension is suitable for rapid slide test and standard Widal test. This suspension can also be used as an antigen control for serological identification of bacterial insulation. The advantage of Remel™ Stained Salmonella O and H Suspensions (Widal Test) is that it can identify most types of Salmonella, showing accurate and reliable results, simple and easy-to-use methods (www.thermofisher.com).

Tags
Widal
Share
Related Articles